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Leadership and Human Behavior Responses

Leadership and Human Behavior Responses


1. Mezzo class week 7- A group has three stages: a beginning, a middle, and an end. What differentiates one stage from another? What factors influence group endings? Explain using your text and at least one scholarly outside source. 

Response Guidelines

2. Respond to at least one other learner with a different example by either supporting or challenging their conclusion with evidence. respond to DAWN “Group therapy is described as 1 or more therapists working with multiple people at the same time (Cherry, K., 2022).  There are multiple types of groups with the most common being cognitive behavioral groups, Interpersonal groups, psychoeducational groups, skill development, and support groups (Cherry, K., 2022).  Every group will have a begging, middle, and end.  The beginning can begin with an introduction of the group, ice breakers, and expectations for the group and facilitator.  The middle can be where members have become comfortable in sharing openly with other members and be willing to accept the idea of change.  However, in the middle workers can expect termination, and termination of a member can be common.  Facilitators may take this personally, but it is important to understand that participant drop out can be due to a lack of interest by the member, lack of motivation, circumstances, and lack of willingness to change and has little to do with the skills of the facilitator (Toseland & Rivas, 2017).  Endings can have multiple reactions some members may be in fear others may be excited about their new lives.  The facilitator at the ending should avoid bringing up new issues or concerns and should instead reflect on the group, reflect on the sessions, what members got out of the group, what was significant to them, and what they will take away from the group that they can apply to their lives (Toseland & Rivas, 2017). “

3.Theories of Management- macro class week 7

Compare and contrast theory X and theory Y and management by objectives (MBO). Describe each theory before comparing their strengths and weaknesses. Which theory do you consider most applicable to a human organization with which you are affiliated? Explain why. Discuss in the context of an example, though be careful not to disclose identifiable information.

Response Guidelines- macro week 7

4. Respond to the posts of at least two peers. Identify how your post is similar or different to the primary author’s post (including discussion of the theories, comparison of strengths and limitations, and most applicable rationale through an example situation). Critically compare the application of theories in the examples and explain your analysis using resources to support your position as needed. Respond to ALLEE “We live in a society of organizations that carry out core functions of social order (Netting et al.,2016). In many communities, the needs of individuals are met by specialized organizations through voluntary associations, shops, religious congregations, municipal utilities, construction companies, schools, hospital, social welfare institutions, and nongovernmental organizations(Netting et al., 2016). Organizations also comprise the building blocks of larger macro systems.To understand organizations, theories that seek to explain them must be reviewed. Organizational theories address how and why organizations were formed and how they operate. Theories offer views of organizations from various perspectives that sharpen the focus of an organizations function. Management by objectives is an approach utilized to achieve long and short-range goals through goal setting and or achievement (Netting et al., 2016).Theory Y is diametrically opposite of this concept as it assumes that individuals are self-directed and self-motivated for growth and development. Under this theory, individuals are active indecision making and are highly ambitious. Leadership in theory X is autocratic while leadership in theory Y is democratic. Theory X focuses on psychological and security needs while theory Y focuses on social needs, esteem, and self-actualization (Netting et al. 2016). Key differences are that individuals operating under theory X are not motivated to contribute towards the fulfillment of organizational goals while individuals under theory Y contribute towards organizational goals.Work is natural for employees in theory Y. External control is tight in theory X and lenient in theory Y. Strengths for each theory are: MBO- attention is focused on promoting satisfactory results and methods to achieve said results, Theory X- offers a model of leadership through power and structure, and Theory Y- offers autonomy to employees and the ability to make decisions regarding an organization (Netting et al., 2016).Weaknesses for each theory are: MBO- The potential for a loss of awareness of end goals is highdue to too much consideration being given to small steps for achieving goals, Theory X- employs a domineering and oppressive management style towards employees, Theory Y- offers decision making power to lower-level employees (Netting et al., 2016).Theory Y is my preferred theory as it provides an individual with freedoms that theory X. does not. Child welfare is driven by numbers and production. Although companies and organizations indicate that they function primarily on the focus of keeping children safe, numbers and production are what secure contracts and motivate management. There is an existential amount of pressure that is placed on employees to provide “quality” work in massive quantities.Unfortunately, there are times when quantity overrides quality (Netting et al., 2016).”

5. macro week 7- RESPOND TO JONI ” According to our textbook, theory x includes the traditional views of management and organizational structure, and theory y assumes that task management needs to recognize the workers’ higher order needs and design organizations that will allow these needs to be achieved (Netting et al., 2017)Theory x follows the traditional views and makes assumptions about human nature, such as: humans avoid work at all costs, humans are pressured into working towards organizational goals since they dislike work, and humans need close supervision because of the little initiative they have (Netting et al., 2017). This theory’s strengths include that most humans have to work to make money and meet their basic needs. This will allow humans to go to work and do what they can to keep their job so that they can continue living their lives. The weakness would include the likelihood that the worker will not be the first to get a promotion or any further benefits as they are doing the bare minimum and require the most supervision.Theory y assumes that people naturally like to work, they enjoy taking the initiative and working towards goals once committed, they seek responsibility and can be trusted to get a job done, they have the capacity to be creative in solving organizational problems, and that they do not typically require close supervision (Netting et al., 2017). The strength of this theory is that managers are more likely to recognize the worker for going above what they are expected, which could lead to a better work environment and possible promotions. The weakness of this theory would include the worker going above and beyond at a task at work and the supervisor not appreciating this, which could lead to dissatisfaction in the workplaceMotivation among employees is based on the motivational elements of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include things like wages, hours, working conditions, and benefits whereas intrinsic factors focus on the motivators within work, like satisfaction with successfully completing a task (Netting et al., 2017). Extrinsic factors keep a general satisfaction of jobs but do not motivate workers to go above and beyond. Intrinsic factors encourage employees to use their creativity and problem-solving skills, creating more productivity. Management by Objectives (MBO) involves short- and long-range planning, and through the planning process, the organizational structures and procedures are established to achieve an outcome (Netting et al., 2017). MBO argues that management must ensure the continued presence of goals and objectives that are clear for the organization, and once these are in place the task of management becomes the decision maker for how to achieve the objectives best (Netting et al., 2017). The strengths of this would include focusing attention on the factors of what make a company successful. The weaknesses would consist of the lack of consideration for the small steps necessary to achieve each objective which could create a loss of awareness of vital steps within the company. My current workplace has a mix of theory x and y, but overall, it leans more towards theory y. My employment promotes independence where the employees can work at their own pace and create their schedule when meeting with clients. The case managers can use different elements of therapeutic techniques that fit with their own personality and therapeutic style to promote best practices with the clients. There are some elements of theory x within my company with certain employees in respect to the fact that they need to be monitored a little more closely by supervisors to ensure their work is completed timely. I feel that my company follows the MBO as they have clear goals and objectives that are set for the workers that need to be achieved each month. If these goals are not being met, the workers will try to figure out a new way to get their goals completed and will meet with the supervisor if the lack of completion continues so that a better plan can be put into place for the worker.”

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