NRS 410. Response to DQs 100-125 Words and one require References each
Cardiopulmonary disease is a range of conditions that affect the heart and lungs, the heart and the lungs are very close to another, and when there is a problem in one it can affect the other. Some examples of cardiopulmonary disease are, Chronic bronchitis, COPD, Congestive heart failure and Emphysema (“Cardiopulmonary disease,” n.d.). There are resources available for patients with non-acute cardiorespiratory issues. Non-acute meaning that these patients have this chronic condition, but they are stable enough to manage their life with this condition on their own to some extend at home, instead of being in a facility. Resources can be obtained by the treated physicians, nurses, case managers or hospitals when patient is discharged home. Home Health care, Physical Therapy, durable medical equipment’s like oxygen concentrators, Hospital beds, shower chairs, Skilled nursing, Caregivers, these are all resources that patients may have access to when they are at home living with these chronic conditions. They support patient’s independence by allowing the patient to be in their own environment with the additional care provided by these resources and still maintain some independence. Some ways to decrease readmission is by educating patients and their families/caregivers about the disease and the disease process, allowing patient to ask questions and concerns, addressing these and to follow up with patient after discharge.
A patient with cardiorespiratory issues will need to have resources available to help them manage their heart condition. AHA defines cardiorespiratory as a promotion of cardiovascular health through education on healthy living, exercise, and stress reduction. This program aims to improve the quality of life in pulmonary disease with energy-saving techniques, breathing strategies, and psychological counseling. Other resources can include Home Health Care, Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy. All these resources are meant to promote independence with quality of care and quality of life which will reduce readmission. When patients have the support of family, friends, doctors, and nurses, they are more likely to be compliant and take the necessary steps to manage their disease. The goal of cardiac Rehabilitation is to establish a plan to regain strength, decrease future risks of heart problems, prevent worsening of the condition, and improve health. Before starting cardiac rehabilitation a medical evaluation needs to be done and ongoing evaluations will be done to track progress and assess for potential risks factors Cardiac rehabilitation is to teach skills and habits but they must be continued for the rest of the patient’s life (“Cardiac rehabilitation,” 2020)
Asthma is a chronic, reversible airway disorder characterized by inflammation and bronchospasm which often affects infants and adults (Johnson, 2018). it is a chronic respiratory condition that causes difficulty breathing due to inflammation of the airways and the symptoms include dry cough, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath (Meyer, 2020). According to Meyer, 2020, there is a major connection between environmental allergies and asthma, and allergic reactions, infections and pollution can trigger asthma attack.
The key steps necessary for the prevention and health promotion of asthma include identification of asthma triggers and taking steps to avoid them, staying away from allergens that can cause asthma attack, limiting exposure to all forms of smoke which can be tobacco, fires and cigarettes, smoking cessation, vaccination with flu shot every year to protect against flu virus which can worsen asthma, regular exercise, taking asthma medications as prescribed and following asthma action plan(Alli, 2021).
Chronic diseases affect health care and quality of life for patients. It can increase the cost of insures for health care. The health reform has changed the focus of disease-oriented to wellness prevention by allowing health insurance more affordable for the patient. With chronic diseases such as heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have been known to raise the cost of health care for many patients; the health care reform has set out to decrease health care by focusing more on wellness and prevention measures. When speaking to these patients the health care reform can identify major causes of these chronic diseases which can be poor diet, poor behavioral choices such as smoking, drinking, and not exercising, and improper education. Providing proper educations and educational programs for these individuals on disease preventions will encourage healthier lifestyle choices such as healthier eating and exercising. (GCU, 2018)
Nurses hold a major role in the transformation of health care. Nurses entail more than 3.8 million registered nurses nationwide. (“News & Information”, 2019) Each nurse provides direct or indirect care for patients in some way. Its important that nurses help support and teach these healthier lifestyles in patients. Nurses have the ability to educate patients and the public on these healthier changes and increase the prevention of these chronic diseases. When nurses implement this teaching to patients it will increase the knowledge these patients have on wellness and prevention. It will also give the patients the resources they may need for correction of their poor life choices.
Healthcare reform has been at the forefront of public and political forums for several years now, especially since the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Healthcare reform refers to the creation or change of major healthcare policies. Warner et al. (2020) report that this change in how healthcare is delivered and perceived comes from “concerns about access, cost, quality, and the economic burden placed on patients, employers, and payers, especially compared with other developed countries.” When the ACA was signed into action, the National Prevention Council was created in order to monitor and guide the nation towards improving both health outcomes and health care quality (Warner et al., 2020). Additionally, a significant amount of Americans gained access to free preventative medical care. Preventative care can increase the quality of the patient’s life, prevent contagious diseases, and certain preventative treatments can reduce the total health costs for the patient in the long term.
For some, preventative care means money out of their already empty pockets. Nurses have a role to advocate for patient care that is cost-effective or better yet free, especially for those negatively affected by their social determinants of health. Nurses also have a role in advocating for patients who lay victim to overzealous and unnecessary preventative measures. Patient outreach through health and wellness education and community-based programs that manage or rehabilitate patients dealing with chronic illnesses are opportunities for nurses to help transform modern health care. “Nurses are ideally positioned for this role, as nursing has consistently embraced an approach to care that is holistic, inclusive of patients, families, and communities and oriented toward empowering patients in their care to assume responsibility for self- and disease management” (Salmond & Echevarria, 2017).
The high-stress level at work is a significant event contributing to the current nursing shortage. The low staffing levels have increased the stress levels at work, affecting job satisfaction and motivation. According to Buerhaus, Skinner, Auerbach, and Staiger (2017), the shortage and uneven distribution of primary care and specialty care physicians lead to high dependence on nurses provide care otherwise provided by physicians. The increased workload leads to increased stress on nurses, driving them to leave the profession. Most nurses are leaving employment to offer home care leading to shortages in the hospital centers.
Another major cause of the nursing shortage is the retirement of registered nurses. According to Buerhaus et al. (2017), since 2012, over 60,000 RNs have retired each year. The retirement rate is likely to increase in the next decade to over 660,000 per year. According to Auerbach, Buerhaus, & Staiger (2015), the rate of baby-boomer RNs retiring is higher than the new nurses entering, leading to a deficit in the workforce. As more baby-boomers retire and less enter the profession, the expected nursing shortage is expected to be 130,000 nurses by 2025 (Auerbach et al., 2015). These numbers indicate an increase in the loss of expertise and knowledge in the nursing workforce.
The Joint Commission is vigilant in ensuring quality health care through its accreditation process and newsletter publications. In 2019, the Joint Commission released a newsletter on strategies to develop resilience to combat nurse burnout (Lippincott Nursing Education, 2016). Currently, there are only fourteen states in the United States that stipulate in law the optimal staffing levels for different departments (Lippincott Nursing Education, 2016). However, only California has a law that specifies the required minimum nurse-to-patient ratio allowed at all times in all units.