Create two SMART objectives that you might use when teaching members of a senior center the importance of increased activity. As discussed in the Module Overview, the acronym SMART stands for the following:
Attainable for target audience within scheduled time and specified conditions
Relevant and results-oriented
Targeted to the learner and to the desired level of learning
Reflect on how you would use this process in your own career.
This is in the module overview.Theoretical Frameworks Applied to Population HealthAs community health nurses, we should be concerned about how those that we work with feel and think about the content, not how we feel and think. Health education is a collaborative process. The goal of health education is to provide the public with tools and information to improve their health status. The success of any health education intervention relies heavily on a well-developed plan. The foundation of this plan should be sound goals and objectives. In community health, we often use the SMART format for writing both goals and objectives. The acronym SMART stands for the following:SpecificMeasurable/ObservableAttainable for target audience within scheduled time and specified conditionsRelevant and results-orientedTargeted to the learner and to the desired level of learningA goal for a health program should always be supported by assessment data and agreed upon by stakeholders. The following is an example of a well written goal for a program addressing health promotion in a community: By the end of 2015, there will be a 5% decrease in the obesity rate of adults who reside in Smithville. Consider a nursing intervention that would work toward achieving this goal. Perhaps the objective would be the following: In 2015, the community health nurses will conduct one-hour health education sessions at the senior center.In Table 5.1 below, you will find an example of how the community health nurse may organize and plan this education session.ObjectiveContent Materials NeededTimeEvaluationIcebreakerSpices/Herbs/Seasoning Taste TestSelect two to three spices, such as thyme, basil, oregano, rosemary, garlic powder, onion powder, chili powder, low-sodium taco seasoning, cumin, curry, coriander, or salt-free seasoning mixes.As people come into the workshop, offer them a salt-free pretzel to dip in a small amount of olive oil and then in a spice.Spices, PretzelsFive to seven minutesAsk participants how they like the taste and whether they can name the spices/seasonings.By the end of teaching session, participants will be able to identify three small changes to make their food healthierSelect leaner cuts of ground beef (90% lean or higher), turkey breast, or chicken breast.Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals, and choose foods with lower numbers.Limit purchase of processed meats, which tend to be high in sodium.Try seafood instead of meat and poultry. You should aim to eat eight ounces of seafood per week.Video: Healthy Can Be TastyHandout: Enjoy Healthy Food That Tastes GreatDiscussion: What barriers to making these small changes do participants anticipate?1520 minutesHave participants complete and submit the 10-item worksheet, Making Small Changes.Ask clients to describe foods used in their specific diets and identify possible alternatives.By the end of teaching session, participants will be able to verbalize potential food substitutions using spices, herbs, and salt-free seasonings.Too much sodium can be bad for your health. It can increase your blood pressure and your risk of heart attack and stroke.The majority of sodium we consume is in processed and restaurant foods.The average sodium intake for Americans over two years of age is approximately 3,400 mg per day.Handout:MyPlateDiscussion: Substitutions that participants have tried; what worked and what did not.1520 minutesHave each participant identify one substitution that he or she will make this week.Table 5.1(ODPHP, 2012)As you can see, a health education intervention must be well planned and organized. During the development process, the nurse must consider factors that may influence the dynamics of the intervention. These include the ages, ethnicities, education levels, languages spoken, and literacy levels of the intended audience. As nurses, we gravitate toward using the medical jargon that we are comfortable with in the teaching and learning processes. However, we must consider cultural influences beyond the lack of English proficiency that may serve as barriers to a successful education-focused intervention. In some cultures, people may believe that asking questions of the teacher is a sign of disrespect. Therefore, individuals may leave the session without clarity on some of the content. In other cultures, the actual client may not be the person who is actively engaged in the session. There may be a spouse or child who accompanies them and is the more active participant. As a nurse, we can create an atmosphere of mutual respect and openness in order to overcome some of the barriers described. We also have the responsibility to advocate for members of the community who are in need of further health education. This may be through obtaining translators or educational brochures in their native languages. Just as with any nursing intervention, there must also be a method in place to evaluate whether the objectives were actually met. This helps us to plan further interventions and improve upon the process (Singleton & Krause, 2009).ReferencesOffice of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2012). Eat healthy, be active community workshops. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/workshops/…Singleton, K., Krause, E. (2009). Understanding cultural and linguistic barriers to health literacy. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(3). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANA… ents/Vol142009/No3Sept09/Cultural-and-Linguistic-Barriers-.html