With the prevalence of dementia, delirium, and depression in the growing geriatric population, you will likely care for elderly patients with these disorders. While many symptoms of dementia, delirium, and depression are similar, it is important that you are able to identify those that are different and properly diagnose patients. A diagnosis of one of these disorders is often difficult for patients and their families. In your role as an advanced practice nurse, you must help patients and their families manage the disorder by facilitating necessary treatments, assessments, and follow-up care.
- Review the case study provided by your Instructor. Reflect on the way the patient presented in the case, including whether the patient might be presenting with dementia, delirium, or depression.
- Reflect on the patients symptoms and aspects of disorders that may be present. What distinct symptoms or factors would lead you to a diagnosis of dementia, delirium, or depression?
- Consider how you might assess, perform diagnostic tests, and recommend medications to treat patients presenting with the symptoms in the case.
- Access the Focused SOAP Note Template in this weeks Resources.
Complete the Focused SOAP Note Template provided for the patient in the case study. Be sure to address the following:
- Subjective: What was the patients subjective complaint? What details did the patient provide regarding their history of present illness and personal and medical history? Include a list of prescription and over-the-counter drugs the patient is currently taking. Compare this list to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria®, and consider alternative drugs if appropriate. Provide a review of systems.
- Objective: What observations did you note from the physical assessment? What were the lab, imaging, or functional assessments results? How would you interpret and address the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)?
- Assessment: Provide a minimum of three differential diagnoses. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the diagnostic criteria for each, and explain what rules each differential in or out. Explain you critical thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.
- Plan: Provide a detailed treatment plan for the patient that addresses each diagnosis, as applicable. Include documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other healthcare providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, caregiver support, and any planned follow-up visits. Provide a discussion of health promotion and disease prevention for the patient, taking into consideration patient factors, past medical history (PMH), and other risk factors. Finally, include a reflection statement on the case that describes insights or lessons learned.
- Provide at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old) and support the treatment plan in following current standards of care. Follow APA 7th edition formatting.
- Case Study:
- HPI: Ms. Peters is a 70-year-old female who is brought to your office by her son with reports of acute confusion (more than usual) and some agitation and restlessness. She has a known history of dementia, managed with Aricept 10 mg. daily. Her son, Jared, reports that 2 days ago she began to become more confused than usual and very easily agitated. He reports that yesterday, she couldnt remember where she was in her own home. She had a doctors appointment 3 days ago and her HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide) was increased to 50 mg. due to increased bps. Ms. Peters last Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score was 18/30. The assessment was repeated, and the score remained unchanged. Ms. Peters and her son denies her having any falls or contributing traumas recently. She denies any changes in diet or routine regimens. No reported dysuria, no fever, nausea, or vomiting. Note: Be sure to review the MMSE and how to interpret results (Mental State Assessment Tests). Make sure you document the patients score in your SOAP note document. Also review the Geriatric Depression Assessment (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]).Ms. Peters is a 70-year-old female who is alert but easily distracted, at times, during todays clinical interview. Her eye contact is fair. Speech is clear and coherent but tangential at times. She makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tics. She denies any visual or auditory hallucinations. She denies any suicidal thoughts or ideations. She is alert but disoriented to place and time. She denies any falls, denies any pain. Her son does say she has had some stumbling and balance issues but no reported falls.All other Review of System and Physical Exam findings are negative other than stated. Vital Signs: 98.1 120/64 HR-72 20PMH: Hypertension, Diabetes, Osteoporosis, Chronic Allergic Rhinitis Allergies: Atorvastatin
- Multivitamin daily
- Losartan 50mg daily
- HCTZ 50mg daily
- Fish Oil 1 tablet daily
- Glyburide 5mg daily
- Metformin 500mg BID
- Donepezil 10mg daily
- Alendronate 70mg orally once a week
- Social History: As stated in Case StudyROS: As stated in Case studyDiagnostics/Assessments done:
- CXRno cardiopulmonary findings. WNL
- CT headdiffuse Cerebral Atrophy
- MMSEMs. Peters scored 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention and calculation, and recall at a previous visit. At todays visit, there is no change. The score suggests moderate dementia.
- Hemoglobin A1C7.2%
- Basic Metabolic Panel as shown below
- TESTRESULTREFERENCE RANGEGLUCOSE906599SODIUM130135146POTASSIUM18.104.22.168CHLORIDE10498110CARBON DIOXIDE291930CALCIUM9.08.610.3BUN20725CREATININE1.000.701.25GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (eGFR)77>or=60 mL/min/1.73m2